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Introduction by Bonnie Dwyer / Article by Will Stuivenga
For those who love politics, 1987 will probably best be remembered as the year Ronald Reagan told Mikhail Gorbachev to tear down the Berlin wall, a high point in his presidency. But, it was also the year that Reagan acknowledged that the Iran-Contra deal had turned into an arms for hostages agreement. Robert Bork was nominated to serve on the Supreme Court, but his nomination was defeated in the U.S. Senate.
It was a year, as always, filled with good and bad. But, it was also the year that Prozac was introduced, providing a way to even out the ups and downs of life.
Within North American Adventism, the church was still reeling over the shutdown of Harris Pine Mills at the end of 1986. AIDS came to Adventism and was talked about very quietly. Contrasting the sad news was the joyous review that the new hymnal was getting.
“The new hymnal is a substantial improvement over the old one—musically, typographically, thematically—in every way,” wrote Will Stuivenga, Spectrum’s reviewer and music critic for the Bellevue, Washington Journal-American.
Stuivenga’s side-by-side comparison of the two books provides a nice history of Adventist worship music. He looks at words, music, themes, typography. One of his suggestions was that the church convene a long-range planning committee to begin preparation for the next hymnal. Over twenty years have elapsed since the “new” hymnal was published. It does seem like it is time for such a committee to be at work. As he concluded, “The church needs to continue to grow musically, as well as in other ways.”
The New Church Hymnal: Hosanna in the Highest!
From Vol. 17, No. 3
by Will Stuivenga
Will Stuivenga received a M.A. in music theory from the University of Washington, and was the music critic for the Bellevue, Washington, Journal-American. He is currently the organist of the First Christian Church, and the choir director of the Seventh-day Adventist Church in Richardson, Texas.
“The church has waited long," to quote hymn 217/177, but now the new hymnal is here! And it has been well worth the wait. The brand-new Seventh-day Adventist Hymnal, copyright 1985, replaces the Church Hymnal, dating from 1941. Adventist church musicians everywhere, be they organists, choir directors, pianists, or song-leaders, should rejoice in the plethora of outstanding new music to be found in the new hymnal. Congregations will be happy to find old favorites retained, as well as familiar hymns and spirituals not contained in the old hymnal added. Enthusiastic musicians will soon help them discover new favorites. And those involved in planning for worship will be pleased to find a greatly expanded variety of worship aids. The purchase of this new hymnal is truly a "must" for every English-speaking Adventist congregation concerned and excited about their weekly worship experience.
The new hymnal is a substantial improvement over the old one – musically, typographically, thematically – in every way. It is a genuinely significant achievement, a volume in which the church can take pride, which will join the ranks of the hymnals of other denominations. Everyone involved in its preparation is to be commended on a job well done.
The new hymnal has an attractive look, both inside and out. The cover material, however, does not appear to be as sturdy as that used for the old hymnal. After less than three months of admittedly heavy use, the copy used in preparing this review is already showing signs of abrasion and wear along the edges of the spine.
Inside, one need only open the two hymnals – old and new – side by side to notice the striking effect of the large clear type, both on the music and the text in the new book. Extra space was created by increasing the length of the pages from 8-1/2 to 9 inches, and by reducing somewhat the size of the margins. Even so, the appearance of the music on the page is not cramped, but appears spacious and airy.
Unfortunately, the first printing suffered from a series of identical printing glitches, tiny squiggles and dots, which occur on pairs of hymns about every 30 pages throughout the hymnal. According to the publisher, these were caused by spots on the glass through which the negatives were burned onto the plates; they were removed in subsequent printings. (If yours is a first printing copy, you can find them on hymns 31, 33, 66, 68, and so on throughout.)
One significant change in musical notation should be noted. For many years it has been standard practice in hymnals to give a separate flag to each 8th or 16th note when that note is to be sung to one syllable of the text, reserving barred flags to situations in which more than one note was to be sung to one syllable. This typography is awkward to read musically, especially for keyboard players. The new hymnal follows the more current practice of barring 8th and 16th notes together musically, leaving the determination of how many notes to the syllable to the placement of the text under the music. A quick comparison of such hymns as 434/199, 499/320, 545/394 will clearly demonstrate this improvement.
The new hymnal has retained precisely 300 hymns from its predecessor. An additional 24 texts have been retained, but supplied with new tunes. At least six tunes have been supplied with new texts, their old texts eliminated; another six or seven new texts have been united with familiar tunes already in use elsewhere in the hymnal. Eight hymns have been given two tunes from which to choose. Almost two-thirds of the 300 hymns retained have been lowered in pitch. While this may annoy the trained singer, it will be a boon to the average person.
Complementing the 300 hymns from the old hymnal are approximately 90 "new" hymns, which will nevertheless already be familiar to most Adventists; about 70 more of the "new" hymns will be familiar to at least some members. Many of these selections have previously been printed in Adventist hymnals such as Singing Youth and Christ in Song. Others have been hallowed by long familiarity as staples of the "special music" repertoire; still others, in common use for years by other denominations, are undoubtedly buried to some degree in the Adventist subconscious. Thus, material already familiar to Adventist congregations constitutes approximately two-thirds of the new hymnal. This ratio hardly leaves significant ground for complaint of too much "new" music.
The hymns have been thoughtfully arranged into topical divisions. This organization is parallel but not identical to that of the old hymnal. A comparison of the tables of contents of the two books is instructive.
A major difference is the omission of the large separate section entitled "Sabbath School." This substantial grouping of gospel songs, whose topical subdivisions largely overlapped those in the rest of the hymnal, was seemingly designed to consign these musically inferior songs to the more informal setting of the Sabbath School. Unfortunately, it didn't work. To this day, in all but the most musically sophisticated Adventist churches, one commonly finds even the opening hymn of the 11:00 worship service taken from this section of the hymnal.
The compilers of the new hymnal wisely rejected this two-tiered arrangement, shuffling all hymn styles together according to their subject matter. But the current arrangement has caused some rather incongruous pairings of violently opposing hymn styles across the page from one another. Undoubtedly the worst example is the placement of Martin Luther's powerful Reformation hymn (506) next to the rather trite "I Need the Prayers" (505), whose lack of significant musical or poetic value makes it a poor companion for "A Mighty Fortress." Equally unfortunate is the pairing of "Lift High the Cross" (362), one of the hymnal's most stirring new hymns, with the familiar but uninspired "Hark! 'Tis the Shepherd's Voice I Hear" (361). Other incongruous matchups include numbers 182-183,194-195, and 422-423.
The new hymnal contains so much exciting new material that it would be impossible to single out more than the smallest sampling for special mention here. Widely divergent sources and traditions are represented. From the old German chorale school, we get the so-called "Queen of Chorales," Philip Nicolai's "O Morning Star, How Fair and Bright" (18), as harmonized by J. S. Bach. Another high point from this tradition is "If You But Trust in God to Guide You" (510). "Jesus, Priceless Treasure" (239), also harmonized by Bach is itself a musical treasure.
From the Calvinistic side of the Reformation come such psalter tunes as RENDEZ A DIEU (13), here set to a recent versification of Psalm 98 by Erik Routley. Also included is OLD 124TH (22), from the Genevan Psalter, put to a modern-language psalm-related text by Fred Pratt Green.
Folk tunes from a variety of ethnic sources are found in profusion, matched with appropriate texts from many sources. From the popular "Morning Has Broken" (44), set to a Gaelic melody, to the sprightly "Now the Green Blade Rises" (175), an old French carol, these charming melodies add life and character to the hymnal. From the Welsh tradition come such tunes as HYFRYDOL (167, 204), CWM RHONDDA (201, 415, 538) and AR HYD Y NOS (47), tunes probably familiar to most Adventists already. Also familiar is the Irish tune SLANE (320, 547). One of the most delightful new tunes is THE ASH GROVE (407, 560), another traditional Welsh melody.
Two charming English folk tunes KINGSFOLD (144, 465) and FOREST GREEN (90, 168) are arranged by English composer Ralph Vaughan Williams, who contributed two of his own well-crafted tunes for "At the Name of Jesus" (232) and "Come Down, O Love Divine" (257). Adventists already know and love to sing his stirring tune SINE NOMINE to the text "For All the Saints" (421/364). From the north of Europe comes the Swedish hymn "Children of the Heavenly Father" (101), and "Arise, My Soul, Arise" (38), set to a Finnish melody.
From our own continent come two especially significant genres: the Negro spiritual and the early American folk hymn. Each contributes some of the hymnal's strongest and best "new" material. Spirituals include "Go, Tell It on the Mountain" (121), "Give Me Jesus" (305), "Rise Up, Shepherd, and Follow" (138), and many more. Alma Blackmon, a member of the hymnal committee, has provided fine arrangements for several: 69,138,305,580.
Restoring the "right" tune to "Amazing Grace" (108/295) provides but the first of many stalwart early American hymns. Three of the best are "Wondrous Love" (162), "Jerusalem, My Happy Home" (420), and "O, When Shall I See Jesus" (448). Hymns 104, 215, 280, 299, 464, and 620 are also exceptionally fine.
The past decade or so has seen an astounding resurgence of interest in hymn-writing, producing a veritable explosion of exciting hymns in a contemporary idiom. Beginning in England, with such writers and composers as Fred Pratt Green, Peter Cutts, Brian Wren, Erik Routley, and others, it has quickly spread across the Atlantic. Many of these outstanding new hymns are represented in our new hymnal. A few of the best are "Great Our Joy as Now We Gather" (59), the powerful theological statement of "This Is the Threefold Truth" (203), "Christ Is the World's Light" (234), "All Who Love and Serve Your City" (356), "There's a Spirit in the Air" (584) and "When the Church of Jesus" (581).
Special mention should go to the small subsection of the hymnal (438-454) en tided "Early Advent." Eight of the 17 hymns therein were in the Church Hymnal, but five have been revived from the older Hymns and Tunes, specifically 443, 446, 450, 451, 452. These, along with 438, said to have been sung by James White, provide a quaint but fascinating glimpse into our Advent roots. The apologetic tone of the compilers, e.g., "they may not always reach the musical standard of the great hymns of the church" is totally unnecessary. No one who sings them can help being charmed by their fresh folklike character.
The apology would have been more appropriate directed toward some of the shallow modern gospel songs that have unfortunately been included in the hymnal. Undoubtedly the very worst example is "Sweet, Sweet Spirit" (262), which possesses no redeeming theological or musical value, and, with its lack of rhythmic stability, is virtually unsingable by congregations. That this song, clearly written for the gospel crooner, ever made it into the new hymnal is a cause for shame.
Almost equally poor are such numbers as "Fill My Cup, Lord" (439), "Because He Lives" (526) and "In Times Like These " (593). These songs may have marginal value as vocal solos, but have no place in a book designed for congregational singing. Other musically marginal hymns include numbers 75, 99, 180, 181, 192, 289, 297, 485; one could list even more. It is unfortunate the committee decided the level of Adventist musical taste was low enough that it was necessary to add songs of this type.
The space occupied by these could have been put to much better use. There are a number of fine hymns missing from the new hymnal which knowledgeable church musicians might well have expected to find there. And while no two persons would submit identical lists, the following hymns would undoubtedly figure prominently in many.
One of the most powerful hymns ever written, "Ah, Holy Jesus, How Hast Thou Offended?" (LBW 123) is inexplicably missing, as is the beautiful communion hymn "Soul, 'Adorn Yourself With Gladness" (LBW 224). Also missing are Luther's classic "From Heaven Above to Earth I Come" (LBW 51), and the joyful "In Thee Is Gladness" (LBW 552).
The thin baptism section would have been immeasurably strengthened by the inclusion of "We Know That Christ Is Raised" (LBW 189), whose striking imagery links Christ's resurrection with the believer's baptism. Regrettably missing is "Earth and All Stars!" (LBW 558), a hymn memorable for its contemporary language and imagery. The lovely THIRD MODE MELODY, by Thomas Tallis (LBW 497) has been set to a number of different texts, but is included in most recent hymnals. Finally, it is difficult to understand the omission of "Like as a Father," which may well be F. E. Belden's finest hymn text.
Several members of the hymnal committee made significant personal contributions as well. Most prolific are Wayne Hooper, the committee's executive secretary, and Melvin West, chairman of the tunes subcommittee. In the "Composers and Arrangers" index, Hooper has 19 listings, West 31. Many of these are merely straightforward harmonizations, which any competent musician could produce. More significant are several original hymn tunes written by each. West has three: 209, 386, 657, while Hooper supplied six: 126, 220, 379, 385, 410, 542. Other committee members: Alien Foster (203, 298, 417), James Bingham (54, 81, 102, 148) and John Read (278, 677) contributed hymn tunes as well. Alma Blackmon's contributions were mentioned earlier.
While none of these should probably be considered a major contribution to Christian hymnody at large, most are solidly crafted settings of their texts. Most successful are those which remain simple and straightforward in style. Read's BLUEBONNET (278) has an easy folklike character reminiscent of the early American tunes discussed earlier. Hooper's most successful effort, TENDER SONG (542), has a similar lilting quality well suited to its text.
A pair of Sabbath hymns (385, 386) written especially for the hymnal by poets Gem Fitch and Ottilie Stafford are set by Hooper and West, respectively. Neither tune is especially memorable, though both are sensitive to their wellwritten texts. West's SLY PARK (657), with its striking modulation, is more effective. Substituting Hooper's bland UNITA (126) for Gustav Hoist's much stronger CRANHAM (224) as a setting for Christian Rossetti's tender Christmas poem, "In the Bleak Midwinter," was definitely a mistake. Hoist's setting is inseparably connected with the poem to those familiar with the carol, and rightly so.
Those familiar with Melvin West's inimitable style of hymn improvisation will be pleased to find several hymn settings reminiscent of his "last verse" reharmonizations. Especially noteworthy are DIX (123) and DUKE STREET Volume 17, Number 3 55 (227). These two, at least, probably should not be used to accompany all stanzas of the hymn; the accompanist should turn to the crossreferenced "harmony" setting for most of the stanzas, reserving the "unison" setting for special effect. See also numbers 153, 199, 200, 215, and 616. West has also written several elegant free accompaniments to canons (see the canon index on page 808) and responses.
Another major area of significant interest concerns the textual alterations in hymns. These can be divided into essentially four categories: poetic, theological, and those involving the alteration of archaic or sexually exclusive language.
Poetic changes rarely involve substantial change of meaning, and are often effected by substitution of entire phrases or "verses,"5 often with the intent of restoring the original poetry. A good example is found in hymn 156/130. For the second half of the first stanza, the old hymnal had:
How pale Thou art with anguish, With sore abuse and scorn! How does that visage languish Which once was bright as morn!
while the new hymnal restores the original poetic translation of James Alexander:
O sacred head, what glory, What bliss till now was Thine! Yet, though despised and gory, I joy to call Thee mine.
Perhaps the editors of the 1941 hymnal found the word gory to be too gory. Other hymns with poetic substitutions or changes include 76/131 and 384/462. Both poetic changes and additional stanzas can be found in 169, 170/136. Hymn 455/141, based on a poem by John Greenleaf Whittier that has more than 30 stanzas, has been given an entirely new first stanza, which gives the hymn a new title as well. The tune's meter has been altered from duple to triple, making this hymn even more difficult for some to recognize. Hymn 553/676 has been supplied with a translation by a different author.
Numerous hymns of dubious musical value have one less stanza to suffer through: 159/533, 300/474, 335/644, 367/623 are examples. A number of stanzas with morbid language now out of fashion have been dropped (272/655, 287/563, 306/594), and number 530/313 has lost a stanza that began with the name of Satan, but has regained its traditional refrain.
Hymn 163/124 has lost its third and fourth stanzas, to the detriment of the final stanza, which continues the thought of those omitted. The transformation of this noble hymn by Isaac Watts into a gospel song, by the addition of an irrelevant refrain, can hardly be thought an improvement either. Another hymn whose poetic conceit is virtually destroyed by the omission of a crucial stanza, and in this case, the substitution of a different stanza in its place, is number 79/67. The missing stanza spoke of "reading" God's love in nature; the next two stanzas amplify the conceit by stating that we "read" this love best in Christ's death and resurrection.
The compilers have occasionally added stanzas to especially fine hymns, such as "Fairest Lord Jesus" (240/165) and "Ye Watchers and Ye Holy Ones" (91/77), though not as often as they could have. The inclusion of the two additional extant stanzas for "Praise to the Lord" (1/12) would have been welcome. On the other hand, one of the stanzas added to "Amazing Grace" (108/295) was not written by the same poet, and matches the original poetry in neither language nor tone. It sounds fine around a campfire, but hardly seems appropriate to the more formal setting of the 11:00 worship hour.
More significant than the addition or deletion of stanzas is textual alteration for theological purposes. While most changes have to do with the doctrine of the state of the dead, some also restore trinitarian language, as is the case with numbers 71/3 and 73/73. In hymn 298/278, stanza five, the word saints is changed to them, the pronoun now referring to angels, the old language having implied the presence of the departed saints in heaven. Similar reasoning has prompted changes in 321/276: "I will love Thee in death," has been altered to "I will love Thee 'til death," and in 337, 338/635, stanza three, in which the word saints is substituted for spirits. This latter requires the singing of one syllable to two notes of music, where all other stanzas supply one syllable per note. (Congregations should be encouraged to try out the strong new tune for "Redeemed" (338), but should note that the stanzas numbered 2 and 3 are really stanzas 3 and 4 of the original. The missing stanzas can be found across the page.)
Archaic language is very occasionally replaced. "Thee's" and "thou's" are only rarely altered, the most noticeable example being hymn 235/487. The title and first line of 169, 170/136 have been similarly treated.
The text committee states that it replaced archaic and exclusive language "with great caution,"7 and while this is certainly the case, great care was not always taken. Hymn 344, new to this hymnal, but found in many other denominational hymnals,** is given a bizarrely inconsistent version here. The hymn begins with modern language – "I love Your kingdom Lord" – (italics supplied) but reverts to "Thee's" and "Thine"s" partway into the second stanza. The fourth stanza switches back to "Your."
Further inconsistency is found in the pronouns used to refer to the church. In stanza 2, the church is feminine: "Her walls before Thee stand," while in stanza 3, the church suddenly becomes neuter. Now, while there probably should not be any great objection to referring to the church as feminine, we should be able to expect consistency, at least within the frame of a single hymn. The text committee obviously had no scruples against a feminine church per se; hymn 374 uses feminine pronouns to refer to the church throughout.
Exclusive language has been removed from a few hymns. Hymn 283/231 changes "Shame on us Christian brethren" to "O shame, professing Christian." Hymn 612/360 substitutes "Christians" for "brothers" in both stanzas 2 and 3. Hymn 618/354 alters "Ye that are men" to "Ye that are His." In hymn 25/16, stanza 3, "men" is changed to "man," a slight improvement.
More significant is Ottilie Stafford's rewrite of number 615, "Rise Up, O Men of God," which, under her pen, becomes "Rise Up, O Church of God."10 She solves the exclusive language problem neatly by addressing one stanza each to men, women, and youth. But she is less than entirely accurate when she states in a recent article that "Where appropriate changes could not be made, the hymn was eliminated rather than exclude a major portion of the church from its message." Were this truly the case, hymn 602/173 "O Brother, Be Faithful," should certainly have been omitted. Musically, the hymn is no great prize. But presumably the committee was unwilling to tamper with the work of early Advent hero Uriah Smith, the hymn's author. Stafford's own solution would have worked here, if substituting "Christian" for "brother" was thought too drastic. Hymn 399, with its exclusive second stanza, probably should have been left out also.
There are numerous examples of exclusive language that could have been altered quite easily, but was not. To list but a few: hymn 29, stanza 4, "men" to "all"; 62, stanza 5, "Blest is the man," to "Blest is the one," or "Blest are all those;" 84/78, stanza 3, "man hath defied Thee," to "we have defied Thee;" 193, stanza 4, "her" to "its;" 558, all uses of "men" to "we;" and so forth throughout the hymnal. The wording of these suggested changes is that which comes immediately to mind; no doubt a thoughtful text committee could make improvements upon it.
There are examples also, of exclusive language that cannot be changed without ruining the poetry. In stanza 3 of hymn 97, for instance, the exclusive language is part of the rhyme scheme. In hymn 96, right across the page, the sun is portrayed as masculine, the moon as feminine. The possessive pronouns "his" and "her" could easily be altered to "its," but the poetic imagery would be weakened thereby. Still, throughout the hymnal in general, the text committee was much more cautious than they could and should have been in this regard.
I cannot conclude without mentioning the vastly improved selection of Scripture readings and "worship aids," as they are called in the new hymnal. The number of responsive readings has been almost tripled; also included are many appended Scripture readings appropriate for use as calls to worship, offertory sentences, and benedictions. I hope that pastors and church leaders will make use of these materials, organized by a subcommittee chaired by Merle Whitney, associate pastor of the Sligo church. The quality of church services cannot help but be improved by them.
The use of a variety of modem translations as well as the King James Version, substantially enriches the section of responsive readings. It is also gratifying to see that a large percentage of these readings are taken more or less uninterrupted from a single scriptural source, rather than pieced together. These latter, especially when compiled in support of a particular doctrinal position, often seem forced, weakened as they are by lack of context.
Another exciting "first" is the index of "Scriptural Allusions in Hymns," beginning with page 791. Of invaluable aid to those planning for worship, this index can also provide hours of thoughtful entertainment in looking up favorite hymns to see which Scriptures are listed, finding and reading those passages, and comparing them to the hymn text. While the careful reader will undoubtedly detect additional allusions not listed here, the index is remarkably comprehensive and represents an enormous amount of work.
Finally, the first printing contained a number of typographical errors. The Review and Herald Publishing Association says these problems will be corrected in later printings. Some of these mistakes are no doubt due, at least in part, to the haste with which the new hymnal was prepared. For years, the General Conference resisted suggestions that a new hymnal was needed. When the inevitable was finally acknowledged and the decision made to create a new hymnal, it was wanted immediately. Committee members have complained that the time allotted was too short for completing the job thoroughly. The new Episcopal hymnal, by comparison, has been in preparation for at least 10 years, and as of this writing, had yet to appear in print.
We may hope that the church will not make this mistake again. Within a few years, information should be gathered as to the success and acceptance of the new hymnal, and long-range planning committees should be set up to begin preparations for the next one. The church needs to continue to grow musically, as well as in other ways.
In the meantime, may this fine new book inspire a resurgence of praise and worship in our churches. Perhaps the best summation of the entire hymnal and its purpose can be found in the words of hymn 32:
When in our music God is glorified, And adoration leaves no room for pride, It is as though the whole creation cried Alleluia! How oft, in making music, we have found A new dimension in the world of sound, As worship moved us to a more profound Alleluia! Let every instrument be used for praise; Let all rejoice who have a voice to raise; And may God give us faith to sing always: Alleluia!
|1.||Unless otherwise identified, numbers in the text refer to hymn numbers in the new hymnal. Where two numbers are given, separated by a slash, the second refers to the location of the same hymn in the old hymnal. Readers are encouraged to have copies of both hymnals in hand.|
|2.||In this review, the term hymn generally refers to the combination of a tune with a text.|
|3.||"Introduction" to The Seventh-day Adventist Hymnal, p. 5.|
|4.||The "omitted" hymns discussed here are referenced to the Lutheran Book of Worship (LBW) (Minneapolis: Augsburg Publishing House, 1978) for the pragmatic reason that all of the hymns cited happen to be found within it.|
|5.||In proper poetic terminology, a verse is one line of verse, or poetry. A stanza is the correct term for successive portions of the hymn sung to repetitions of the tune. Although the term verse as in last verse, please, is widely used in this regard, it is technically an incorrect usage.|
|6.||For the missing stanzas, see Edward E. White, Singing With Understanding (Warburton, Victoria, Australia: Signs Publishing Company, 2nd Edition, 1981), p. 16.|
|7.||The Seventh-day Adventist Hymnal, p. 7.|
|8.||For the original version, see The Hymnbook (Presbyterian, 1955), hymn number 435. For two modern language versions, see The Worshipbook (Philadelphia: The Westminster Press, 1970), hymn number 626, and the Lutheran Book of Worship, hymn number 368.|
|9.||Exclusive is a term used to describe generic language that excludes half the race by its masculine (or occasionally feminine) construction, i.e., man, men, brother, etc. Inclusive describes language that is carefully worded to include everyone.|
|10.||For the original, see The Hymnbook, hymn number 352.|
|11.||Ottilie Stafford, "The New SDA Church Hymnal," Journal of the International Adventist Musicians Association, Vol. 1 (Spring 1985), p. 17.|
|12.||The introduction to the hymnal credits Edward E. White. His Singing with Understanding (cited above), the unofficial "companion" to The Church Hymnal, will undoubtedly provide the foundation for the proposed companion to the new hymnal.|
|13.||"Introduction," p. 7: the word hymnal is used, though the word hymn was obviously intended, in the sentence reading, "To the left is found a Bible reference if the hymnal [sic] is based on a specific passage." Fanny Crosby's birthdate is incorrectly listed as 1826 under hymn 7. The correct date of 1820 is given at all her other hymns. (Interestingly enough, the old hymnal gives her birthdate as 1823 throughout.) The cross-reference under hymn 228 to the same music in another key is misspelled. Hymn 338 has a musical "typo:" the penultimate melody note on the first score should be a half note, not a dotted half. In the composer and arranger index, Peter Cults is given credit for hymn 456; it should be 356. Similarly, Gustav Hoist's listing for number 658 should read 648. A more serious indexing problem revolves around hymn 380/469. A computer printout made shortly before the new hymnal went to press, which lists the proposed contents, shows that it was intended to substitute Louis Gottschalk's tune MERCY for LA. Steinels EVANS, but for some reason, that substitution never took place. The composer and tune indexes act as though it had, with listings for 380 under Gottschalk and MERCY, rather than Steinel and EVANS|